All matter is comprised of atoms called elements, which have defined chemical and physical properties and cannot be broken down into other substances through ordinary chemical reactions. For example, Oxygen (O) is an element, and so is Silver (Ag). There are 118 elements on the periodic table, but only 92 are naturally occurring.
Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space. At a minimum, matter requires at least one subatomic particle, although most matter consists of atoms. Atoms take up space; the periodic table tells us how much space an atom occupies.
We use spectrometers such as XRF ( X-ray fluorescence) & LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectrometers) to measure elements. (Shown below in the featured image) Geologist and Voyager CEO Vidal Dias uses the SciAps Z300 to measure the elements in a metamorphic rock.
This instrument is the only handheld LIBS instrument on the plant that can measure every element on the periodic table.